Ingliz tilida unless ni ishlatilishi

Ingliz tilida unless bog’lovchisining ishlatilishini ko’rib chiqamiz. 

✳️ Ingliz tilida o’ziga xos so’zlar va birikmalar ko’p. Mana shunday so’zlardan biri ‘unless’ bog’lovchisidir. Bugungi darsimizda mazkur bog’lovchining ishlatilishi va boshqa o’xshash bog’lovchilardan farqini ko’rib chiqamiz.

1️⃣ unless shart ergash gaplarda ‘agar …-masa’ (except if) degan ma’noda ishlatiladi.
🔸 You can’t travel on this train unless you have a reservation. (Agar oldindan olingan joyingiz bo’lmasa, siz bu poyezdda sayohat qila olmaysiz.)
🔸 Unless he’s a complete idiot, he’ll understand. (Agar u butunlay ahmoq bo’lmasa, tushunadi)
🔸 You won’t pass your examinations unless you study hard. (Agar qattiq o’qimasang…)

2️⃣ ‘unless’ bog’lovchi hisoblanadi, shuning uchun undan keyin kelajakda sodir bo’ladigan ish-harakatlar uchun kelajak zamon fe’li emas (future tenses) emas, hozirgi zamon fe’li (present tenses) ishlatiladi.
🔸 Unless it rains, I’ll pick you up at six. (Unless it will rain emas…)
🔸 I won’t change anything unless someone has asked me to.

3️⃣ ‘unless’ bog’lovchisi o’tgan zamonda ham ishlatilishi mumkin.
🔸 Unless the company got a loan, it would go bankrupt.
🔸 They threatened to kill him unless he gave them the money.

4️⃣ Birinchi tipdagi shart gaplarda (First conditional) biz ‘unless’ o’rnida ‘if … not’ qurilmasini ishlatish mumkin:
🔸 Unless the theatre is able to raise £100,000, it will have to close ↔️ If the theatre isn’t able to able to raise £100,000, it will have to close.

⚠️ Lekin mazkur holatda bir nechta istisnolar, ya’ni unless ishlatilmaydigan holatlar mavjud:
➖ agar shart ergash gapdagi ish-harakat kutilmagan voqea bo’lsa:
🔸 I’ll be amazed if Christie doesn’t win. (Agar Kristi yutib chiqmasa, man hayron qolaman)
➖ so’roq gaplarda:
🔸 If you don’t pass the test, what will you do?
➖ ‘agar … -masa’ degan ma’nodagi cheklov, shart ma’nosi gapda bo’lmasa:
🔸 If it wasn’t the best performance of Hamlet I’ve seen, it was certainly the strangest. (Bu men ko’rgan Hamlet roli ijrolaridan eng zo’ri deyolmasam ham, eng g’alatisi bo’ldi deyishim mumkin)
🔸 My wife will be angry if I am not home by 7. (Agar men 7 gacha uyda bo’lmasam, ayolimning jahli chiqadi, bu yerda ko’proq sabab ma’nosi mavjud, ya’ni ayolimning jahli chiqishiga mening 7 gacha uyga bormasligim sabab bo’ladi degan ma’no mavjud)

5️⃣ Noreal shart gaplarda odatda unless ishlatilmaydi, uning o’rnida ‘if … not’ qurilmasi ishlatiladi:
🔸 If I weren’t so tired, I’d give you a hand. (Unless I were so tired emas)

⚠️ Lekin ba’zi holatlarda asosiy (hokim) gap inkor gap bo’lsa, ergash gap boshida ‘unless’ ishlatilishi mumkin.
🔸She wouldn’t have gone to university unless her parents had insisted.

6️⃣ ‘unless’, ‘in case’ va ‘or else’ bog’lovchilarining farqi:
➖ unless – biror ish-harakat sodir bo’lmasa, boshqa ish-harakat sodir bo’lishini bildiradi:
🔸 Unless I hear from you (=if I don’t hear from you), I’ll assume everything’s OK.
➖ in case – biror ish-harakat sodir bo’lishini oldindan o’ylab, boshqa bir ish-harakat qilishda ishlatiladi:
🔸 Take a sweater in case you get cold.
➖ or else – aks holda degan m’anoda bir ish-harakat qilinmasa, boshqa ish-harakat sodir bo’lishini bildiradi:
🔸 You’d better go now, or else you’ll miss the train.

 

Manba

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