Relative clause haqida

✳️ Ingliz tilida relative clause deb gapning biror boʻlagini izohlab kelgan gapga aytiladi. Bunday gaplar oʻzlari mustaqil mazmunni ifodalay olmaydi, lekin gapdagi biror boʻlakka aniqlik kiritadi.

✳️ Relative clauseda qoʻllaniladigan nisbiy olmoshlar (relative pronoun) asosan quyidagilar:
✅ who, whom – shaxslarga nisbatan qoʻllanilib, ularni izohlab keladi.
✅ which – predmet (narsa)larga nisbatan qoʻllanilib, ularni izohlab keladi.
✅ that – shaxslar va predmetlarni izohlab keladi.
✅ whose – shaxslar va predmetlarga qaratqich kelishigi qoʻshimchasini qoʻshib izohlaydi.
✅ where – oʻrin-joy otlaridan keyin kelib joyni izohlab keladi.

⚠️ Relative clause qoʻllanilgan bitta gapni tahlil qilamiz.
🔸 The man who lives next door is very kind. (Qoʻshni uyda yashovchi kishi juda mehribon)
💡Yuqoridagi gapda who lives next door gapi izohlovchi gap hisoblanadi va the man soʻzini izohlab, qaysi kishi nazarda tutilayotganini aniqlashtirib kelmoqda. Ko’pincha izohlovchi gap oʻzi izohlab kelgan gap boʻlagidan keyin keladi. Yana bir misol:
🔸We know a lot of people who live in the country. (relative clause people soʻzini izohlab, undan keyin kelyapti.)

✳️ Gapning egasini izohlab kelgan relative clauselar, agar gapning egasi shaxs boʻlsa, who olmoshi bilan bilan boshlanadi.
🔸We know a lot of people. They live in the country. (ikkita gap…ikkinchi gapda they olmoshi gapning egasi)
🔸We know a lot of people who live in the country. (bitta gap…who olmoshi they olmoshi oʻrnida kelmoqda)

✳️Misollar:
🔸A teetotaller is someone who doesn’t drink alcohol.
🔸What was the name of the man who phoned you last night?
💡Yuqoridagi gaplarda who olmoshi oʻrniga that olmoshini qoʻyish qoʻllasa ham boʻladi.
🔸What was the name of the man that phoned you last night?

✳️ Agarda gapning egasi predmet (jonsiz narsa) boʻlsa, relative clause which olmoshi bilan boshlanadi.
🔸Where is the cheese? It was in the fridge. (ikkita gap…ikkinchi gapda it olmoshi gapning egasi)
🔸Where is the cheese which was in the fridge? (bitta gap… which olmoshi it olmoshi oʻrnida kelmoqda)

✳️ Misollar:
🔸I don’t like stories which have unhappy endings.
🔸 Barbara works for a company which makes furniture.
💡Yuqoridagi gaplarda which olmoshi oʻrniga that olmoshini qoʻysa ham boʻladi.
🔸I don’t like stories that have unhappy endings.

✳️ Oʻzbek tiliga tarjima qilganda relative clause oʻzi izohlab kelgan gap boʻlagining aniqlovchisiga aylanadi.
🔸 I don’t like stories which have unhappy endings. (Men fojea bilan tugaydigan hikoyalarni yoqtirmayman)
🔸The man who lives next door is very kind. (Qoʻshni uyda yashovchi kishi juda mehribon)

⚠️ Yuqoridagi misollarda who va which olmoshlari oʻrnida that olmoshi kelishi mumkinligini koʻrib oʻtdik, lekin ba’zi vaziyatlarda faqat who va which olmoshlarini qoʻllashimiz shart boʻladi. Bunday holatlarni keyingi mavzularda koʻrib chiqamiz.

 

Endi gapda toʻldiruvchini izohlab kelgan relative clauselarni koʻrib chiqamiz.
🔸The man was away on holiday. I wanted to see him. (… ikkita gap, ikkinchi gapdagi him olmoshi toʻldiruvchi)
💡 Yuqoridagi ikkinchi gapni relative clause ga aylantiramiz va bitta gap qilib yozamiz. Toʻldiruvchi shaxs (inson) boʻlganligi uchun whom/that olmoshi qoʻllaniladi.
🔸The man whom (that) I wanted to see was away on holiday. (whom I wanted to see gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va oʻzi izohlab kelgan boʻlak (The man) dan keyin joylashgan.)
🔸Most of the people whom I invited to the party couldn’t come. (whom I invited to the party gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va oʻzi izohlab kelgan boʻlak (most of the people) dan keyin joylashgan.)

✳️ Toʻldiruvchi predmet (jonsiz narsa) boʻlgan holatda which/that olmoshini qoʻllaymiz.
🔸Have you found the keys? You lost them. (…ikkita gap, ikkinchi gapda them olmoshi toʻldiruvchi.)
💡Yuqoridagi ikkinchi gapni relative clause ga aylantiramiz va bitta gap qilib yozamiz.
🔸Have you found the keys which(that) you lost? (which you lost gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va oʻzi izohlab kelgan boʻlak (the keys) soʻzidan keyin joylashgan)
🔸The dress which (that) Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. (which (that) Ann bought gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va oʻzi izohlab kelgan boʻlak (the dress) soʻzidan keyin joylashgan.)

⚠️ Yuqorida koʻrsatib oʻtilgan gaplarda relative clause toʻldiruvchini izohlab kelganligi tufayli whom/which/that olmoshlarini tushirib qoldirishimiz ham mumkin.
🔸The man I wanted to see was away on holiday. (=whom (that) I wanted to see)
🔸Most of the people I invited to the party couldn’t come.(=whom I invited to the party)
🔸Have you found the keys you lost? (=which(that) you lost?)
🔸The dress Ann bought doesn’t fit her very well. (=which (that) Ann bought)

⚠️ Agar toʻldiruvchi oldida predlog boʻlsa, predlog whom/which soʻzlaridan oldin qoʻllaniladi.
🔸The girl with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks.
🔸The bed in which I slept last night wasn’t very comfortable.

 

✳️ what olmoshi gapda ba’zan nima/nimaiki degan ma’noda qoʻllaniladi.
🔸What happened was my fault. (Nimaiki sodir boʻlgan boʻlsa – mening aybim)
🔸What caused the accident, nobody knows. (Falokatga nima sabab bo’ldi, hech kim bilmaydi)
⚠️Yuqoridagi gapni relative clause bilan ham qoʻllashimiz mumkin. Unda what o’rnida everything that qo’llash mumkin.
🔸Everything that happened was my fault. (Sodir boʻlgan hamma narsa – mening aybim…everything what emas.)

⚠️ Quyidagi gaplarga e’tibor bering:
🔸I gave her all the money (that) I had. (…what I had emas.)
🔸I’ll do the best that I can. (…what I can emas.)
🔸 This is an awful film. It’s the worst that I’ve ever seen. (…what I’ve ever seen emas.)
🔸 Tell me what you want and I’ll try to help you. (…that you want emas.)
🔸 I don’t agree with what you have just said. (…that you have just said emas.)

✳️ whose olmoshi relative clauseda egalik sifatlari (his/her/their/its) oʻrnida qoʻllaniladi.
🔸We saw some people. Their car had broken down. (…ikkita gap, ikkinchi gapda their olmoshi qoʻllanilgan.)
🔸We saw some people whose car had broken down. (…bitta gap, their olmoshi oʻrnida whose olmoshi qoʻllanilgan.)
🔸A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (…her husband is dead.)
🔸What is the name of the girl whose car you borrowed? (…you borrowed her car.)

✳️ where olmoshi relative clauseda oʻrin-joyni bildiruvchi otlarni izohlab keladi.
🔸 The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed there. (…ikkita gap, there soʻzi mehmonxonani nazarda tutyapti.)
🔸The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean. (…bitta gap, where we stayed gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va the hotel soʻzini izohlab kelyapti.)
🔸 I recently went back to the town where I was born.
🔸I would like to live in a country where there is a lot of sunshine.

✳️ Paytni bildiruvchi soʻzlarni izohlash uchun relative clauseda the day/the year/the time (etc.) that/when something happened qurilmasi qoʻllaniladi.
🔸Do you still remember the day that/when we first met?
🔸The last time that/when I saw her, she looked very well.
🔸I haven’t seen them since the year (that)/when they got married.

✳️ Sababni bildirish uchun relative clauseda the reason why/that something happens qurilmasi qoʻllaniladi.
🔸The reason why I am phoning you is to invite you to a party.
🔸The reason that they haven’t got a car is that they can’t afford one.

💡 Yuqoridagi gaplardan xulosa qilsak, insonlar uchun ega oʻrnida who, toʻldiruvchi oʻrnida whom, egalik sifati oʻrnida whose, narsalar uchun which, oʻrin-joy otlari uchun where olmoshlari qoʻllaniladi.

 

Qo’shimcha ma’lumot beruvchi relative clause

✳️ Avvalgi mavzularda gapning biror boʻlagini izohlab keladigan relative clause haqida soʻz yuritgan edik. Bu holatlarda ular qaysi shaxs, narsa, joy haqida gap ketayotganligini aniqlash uchun xizmat qiladi.
🔸The man who lives next door is very kind. (…who lives next door gapi relative clause va qaysi kishi nazarda tutilganini aniqlab keladi.)
🔸Garry works for a company which makes typewriters. (…which makes typewriters gapi relative clause hisoblanadi va qanday kompaniya nazarda tutilganini aniqlab kelmoqda.)

✳️ Endi boshqa turdagi relative clause koʻrib chiqamiz. Bu holatda relative clause bizga ma’lum boʻlgan shaxs, narsa, joylar haqida qoʻshimcha ma’lumot beradi va vergul bilan ajratiladi.
🔸Tom’s father, who is 78, goes swimming every day.
🔸The house at the end of the street, which has been empty for two years, has just been sold.
🔸Martin, whose mother is Spanish, speaks both Spanish and English fluently.
🔸Mr. Hogg is going to Canada, where his son has been living for five years.
🔸My sister, whom you once met, is visiting me next week.

✳️ Qoʻshimcha ma’lumot beradigan relative clauselarda predloglar which/whom olmoshlaridan oldin qoʻllaniladi.
🔸Mr. Lee, to whom I spoke at the meeting, is very interested in our proposal.
🔸Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have got lost.

✳️ all of/most of etc.+ whom/which qurilmasining qoʻllanishiga e’tibor bering.
🔸Mary has three brothers. All of them are married. (…ikkita gap)
🔸Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (…bitta gap)
🔸They asked me a lot of questions. I couldn’t answer most of them. (…ikkita gap)
🔸They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn’t answer. (… bitta gap)
🔸Martin tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.
🔸Two men, neither of whom I had seen before, came into the office.
🔸They have got three cars, two of which they rarely use.
🔸Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.

✳️ Shuningdek, predmetlar uchun qaratqich kelishigi qoʻshimchasini bildirish uchun the cause of which/the name of which qurilmasi qoʻllaniladi.
🔸The building was destroyed in a fire, the cause of which was never established.
🔸We stayed in a beautiful hotel, the name of which I can’t remember now.

✳️ Avvalgi mavzularda which olmoshining biror bir gap boʻlagini izohlab kelishini koʻrib oʻtgan edik. Quyidagi qurilmada esa which olmoshi butun bir gapni oʻrnini bosib keladi.
🔸Joe got the job. This surprised everybody. (…ikkita gap, this Joening ishga kirishi)
🔸Joe got the job, which surprised everybody. (…bitta gap)

💡 Yuqoridagi gapda which olmoshi Joening ishga qabul qilingani degan mazmunni ifodalab kelmoqda.
🔸Sarah couldn’t meet us, which was a pity. (…which=Saraning biz bilan uchrasholmagani)
🔸The weather was good, which we hadn’t expected. (…which=ob-havoning yaxshiligi)

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